CPB is a technique that allows the heart-lung machine to take over the lungs and heart function during cardiac surgery by maintaining the blood and oxygen flow to the patient's body.
The main components are:
The patient blood is drained by gravity into the reservoir, the pump push the blood in the oxygenator it gets oxygenated and it is redirect back into the patient arterial blood stream.
The first time a cardiopulmonary bypass machine was successfully used during a cardiac operation was on the 6th of May 1953. The operation was an atrial septal defect performed by John Gibbon.
It is one of the main components of the heart lung machine. This device allowed the exchanging of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the patient blood flow by diffusion. The oxygenator replace the patient lungs function during cardiac surgical procedures. The oxygenator membrane are hollow microporous polypropylene fibres (100–200 μm internal diameter).
The intended use of the cardiotomy reservoir during cardiopulmonary bypass is to create a fluid collection chamber for the patient blood and filter any foreign particles coming from the surgical field (20 - 40 micron filtration capability).
The cardioplegia solution is a myocardial protection technique that cause electromechanical arrest that reduce the heart oxygen consumption during bypass. This solution allows the surgeon to manipulate the heart freely and conduct a safe surgery.
There are mainly two different kind a pumps: roller and centrifugal. These devices allow the blood to circulate from and to the patient's body.
Roller pumps use a peristaltic motion to push the blood around the CPB circuit. These are to most common pumps used for cardiopulmonary bypass.
Centrifugal pumps use centrifuge force to push the blood into and out the pump.
Heater cooler is used to efficiently manage the patient temperature during cardiac surgery. Hypothermia is frequently used during bypass to protect the patients organs.
Cannulas are the devices that allowed the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to be connected to the heart lung machine. Without this it would be impossible to deliver or drain the patient's blood. The Venous cannula drains deoxygenated blood into the CPB and the Arterial cannula give back to the heart oxygenated blood.